Leigha Nortier Anno. Bib Francis Picabia

Leigha Nortier
Avant-Garde Biography Investigation: Unfolding Francis Picabia

Belli, Gabriella. “The End of the Artistic Object.” 1900-1919, The Avant-Garde Movements: Art of the Twentieth Century, Skira, 2006, pp. 397–412.
This article comprises of the evaluation of the Dada revolution as a whole, which Francis Picabia was a large part of (mainly working in the shadows of Duchamp). The passage points out the complex nature of Dada while struggling to actually concisely define it. In a historical context, World War I had a unique impact on Dada causing artists and thinkers of the movement to spread, but the movement itself, according to Gabriella Belli, only spread outside of Europe once Duchamp and Picabia came to New York City. The passage also attributes a large amount of activity of the Dada movement to two events in 1917; the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists and the lecture delivered by Arthur Cravan on modern art. Belli describes Picabia as coming alive as an artist during this period; before this, his art had not made a strong impact, while during Dada he was in the foreground.

Camfield, William A. “The Machinist Style of Francis Picabia.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 3/4, 1966, pp. 309–322. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3048388.
William Camfield focuses on a specific window of time in Francis Picabia’s eclectic art career. In the wake of the American Industrial Revolution, several Avant-Garde artists used machinery and technology to evoke and inspire their work. Francis Picabia, specifically during his visits to the United States in 1913 was fascinated with technology and its interaction with humans. Picabia’s machinist style articulated a perception of the 20th century and the technology, overlapping with Dada and more broadly Modernist art. Picabia’s art in this stage of his career powerfully influenced other Modernist artists such as Alfred Stieglitz and Marius de Zayas. Camfield also points out the difficult nature of studying Picabia’s work first because he there were no true patterns in his work and the overall unpredictability, and second, that Picabia actually tried to hide his intention and meaning behind his artistic expression and his life as a whole. Because Camfield focuses on this narrow period of time, he does not reveal the influences or overlap of other artistic revelations that Picabia had such as his Cubist work or his Renaissance mocking work in the 1920s.

Camfield, William A. “Search for Self-Expression.” Francis Picabia, Princeton University Press, 1979, pp. 17–40.
William Camfield maps out the artistic journey and patterns that explain the different works of Francis Picabia. Just before visiting New York City for the first time, Picabia appeared to have an “identity crisis”. There was an intersection of his cubist tendencies and his portfolio of pieces referred to as the Transparencies. Due to household name artists such as Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque popularizing cubism, this particular art movement became defined and more rigid, gradually turning Picabia away from Cubism entirely. Camfield argues that Picabia’s uncertainty for his own art in this portion of his life is caused by his marriage and honeymoon, along with the spread and popularization of Avant-Garde ideas as a whole (beyond the breaches of Italy and other contained parts of Europe). Picabia goes back and forth between showing his Avant-Garde nature and then again, a more traditionalist style, once again revealing the artistic depth and intricacy of Picabia.

Francis, Mark. “Francis Picabia. Paris.” The Burlington Magazine, vol. 145, no. 1200, 2003, pp. 242–244. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3100654.
In a short excerpt of Burlington Magazine, Mark Francis unpacks Francis Picabia’s ecliptic artistic career by categorizing different styles or interests into “chapters” while simultaneously drawing on historical events that potentially impacted Picabia. Francis argues that despite the unpredictability of Picabia’s art, there was an overarching theme of authenticity. This same authenticity is what draws in a contemporary audience, Francis claims. The excerpt also states that Picabia was not and will not be remembered by his work in Cubism and Dada, but instead by his later work where he diverges from the rest of modernism art enthralling himself in his own fascination[pdfjs-viewer url=”http%3A%2F%2Fcourses.suzannechurchill.com%2Feng394-f17%2Ffiles%2F2017%2F09%2FBio-Project-Francis-Picabia-PDF-.pdf” viewer_width=100% viewer_height=1360px fullscreen=true download=true print=true]. Francis is only truly skimming the surface of the various artistic phases Picabia went through, addressing mainly how he flourished as a Modernist artist in Paris while not even giving attention to the visits Picabia made to New York City in the early 20th century.

Henderson, Linda Dalrymple. “Francis Picabia, Radiometers, and X-Rays in 1913.” The Art Bulletin, 71, no. 1, 1989, pp. 114–123. College Art Association, doi:10.1080/00043079.1989.10788481.
Linda Dalrymple Henderson focuses on Francis Picabia’s 1913 Mechanical Expression Seen through Our Own Mechanical Expression, pulling apart its meaning, context and most importantly the influence it had on the rest of Picabia’s work. This piece of work is the Segway from Picabia’s cubist work, into his mechanical driven drawings and other pieces. Henderson historicizes the painting in the context of scientific revelations in the 20th century. The invention of the X-Ray (and its various parts) produced an entire new fascination with uncovering the body beyond that of crude imagery and played with the concept of gaze. This development showed in Picabia’s work and other Modernists. Picabia was especially drawn to this because he of his obsession to surpass human perception and reject the visual world.

Hopkins, David, and Paul Sloman. “Dada’s Potency: Francis Picabia’s the Blessed Virgin and the Dialogue with Duchamp.” Dada’s Boys: Masculinity after Duchamp, 2007, pp. 15–43.
David Hopkins analyzes the male artists of the Dada phase, concentrating on their gender role in their artistic approach. Hopkins claims that from the dynamics of Duchamp and Francis Picabia among other male Modernist artists show along with other an overarching theme of sexism, in particular, the criticism and erotic stigma around the female body. Hopkins breaks down individual paintings and works of art, analyzing both the feminine and masculine nature and counterparts and traits. La Sainte-Vierge (The Blessed Virgin) from Picabia is especially considered and debated by Hopkins. He tries to solidify a meaning or gendered standing on the painting “splattered” painting, which is ironic because of Picabia’s tendency to hide the true meaning of his work.

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