Alfred Kreymborg

Allen, Charles. “Glebe and Others.” College English, vol. 5, no. 8,

1944, pp. 418–423. JSTOR, JSTOR


“The significance of Glebe and Others is no greater or no less than the estimate that one places on the desirability of securing the reputations of such poets as Williams, Moore, and Stevens” (423). The final line Charles Allen’s “Glebe and Others” comes as close as this non-argumentative piece does to a thesis. The article is as much an account of Kreymborg’s work and importance to the Avant Garde movements as it is of the importance of the magazines themselves, following Kreymborg from the founding of these publications to his eventual departure from them, through to their—and thus his—ongoing legacy. Overflowing with admiration for the poets who worked in Others, the article gives accounts of many of the styles of those poets. Though the article offers no close readings, the descriptions are vivid and distinct. The author also offers some historical context, detail’s about Kreymborg’s life, and probably the most successful element of this article, exceedingly well-selected primary source quotes that, combined with the author’s evident excitement for these works, creates something of a sense of the emotional climate of the writers. Loy is mentioned only tangentially among laundry lists of writers—enough to know she was involved, not enough to know she was important.


Churchill, Suzanne M. “Making Space for Others: A History of a

Modernist Little Magazine.” Journal of Modern Literature 22.1 (1998): 47-67. ProQuest. Web. 15 Sep. 2017.

Less unabashedly in praise of Others and Kreymborg in general than Allen, Churchill instead provides more detail on Kreymborg’s personal beliefs and attitudes as they influenced the magazine while still highlighting the importance of both the magazine and its editor across Avant Garde movements. The piece analyzes Others, its leader, and its context from a gender politics perspective, using to great effect quotes from Kreymborg’s autobiography and historical facts—both where the two agree with each other and where they do not—to critique Kreymborg and shed light on some of the problematic underpinnings of the movement. These insights can also can be applied as a rough guideline to using Kreymborg’s own writings in research—or at least can serve as a warning. A greater inclusion of Loy in this piece helps give a better understanding of their connection, and also offers a lens with which to consider how she (and other prominent women) wound up marginalized by the history books.



Churchill, Suzanne W. The Little Magazine Others and the Renovation of Modern

American Poetry. Ashgate. 2006.

Because Others was a literary home—and even the birthplace of a literary career—for many Avant Garde poets, and because it subscribed to no particular form, manifesto, or movement, Churchill uses it to frame an analysis across this broad category, and allows us to assess the place, work, and impact of different writers and artists, including Mina Loy, and because of his position as Others’ creator and editor, Alfred Kreymborg, and the connection between the two, as well as providing depth in historical context and analysis.


Miller, C. “Tongues “loosened in the melting pot”: The Poets of Others

and the Lower East Side.” Modernism/modernity, vol. 14 no. 3, 2007, pp. 455-476. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/mod.2007.0067

This piece sets out to demonstrate that the poetry of Others is reflective of the experience of the American Immigrants and Jews, particularly in—among others—Loy’s poetry. While this connection stems from the modernist movement itself, Miller argues that such a connection is most prevalent in Others. Placing Loy’s work as a distinct centerpiece of her argument gives us a clear framework with which to understand the match up between Kreymborg’s concept and editing and Loy’s writing. Moreover, much of the scholarship on Others highlights its characteristic lack of defined association to a given movement. Comparing the work to a specific cultural experience gives us one way to put together a framework.


Monroe, Harriet. “Little Theatres and Poetic Plays.” Poetry, vol. 11,

  1. 4, 1918, pp. 201–207. JSTOR, JSTOR,

Though it somewhat straddles the line between a primary and secondary source, Monroe’s article, which opens with a glowing review of Kreymborg’s Plays for Poem-mimes, goes on to provide history and context about theater in the decade preceding Kreymborg’s national performance tour. Understanding these theatrical concepts help us understand an important part not just of Kreymborg’s work but of work he did with Loy. Furthermore, from Monroe’s position on the fringes of the radical movement, where she sat squarely against her more radical contemporaries, we are offered a view of these theatrical movements through a lens that we have context on and that will allow us to compare and contrast the theatrical and poetic movements. This article also brings us out of New York and into the Midwest, offering a whole new setting for analysis and understanding.



Voyce, S. “‘Make the World Your Salon’: Poetry and Community at the

Arensberg Apartment.” Modernism/modernity, vol. 15 no. 4, 2008, pp. 627-646. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/mod.0.0039


Voyce’s piece positions the “Avant Garde Salon,” and in particular the Arensberg apartment, as not just an incidental part of the Avant Garde movement or an outcome the new ideas and styles, but as an influence on the art of its members, both in visual art and poetry. Besides giving insight into the birthplace of Others (which shares with the Salon its categorical resistance to characterization), and the place where Loy and Kreymborg met, Salons are an important fixture across Avant Garde circles and movements. These analyses will be especially useful in conversation with the Churchill analysis of the Others cabin in New Jersey.



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